Psychology Faculty

Heather E Bullock
  • Title
    • Director, Center for Economic Justice and Action
    • Professor, Department of Psychology
  • Division Social Sciences Division
  • Department
    • Psychology Department
  • Affiliations Humanities Division, Feminist Studies Department, Community Studies Program
  • Phone
  • Email
  • Office Location
    • Social Sciences 2, 56
  • Office Hours (Spring 2024) In person Mon. 1 - 2 pm or by appointment Social Sciences 2 room 56
  • Mail Stop Psychology Faculty Services

Summary of Expertise

Poverty and economic inequality, welfare policy, feminist psychology, discrimination.

Research Interests

Heather Bullock's research focuses on social psychological dimensions of economic (in)justice. She is interested in how members of different socioeconomic groups understand and justify poverty and wealth, as well as their own relative status. Much of her work in this area examines how classist stereotypes and attributions for poverty influence support for various welfare and anti-poverty policies.

Professor Bullock also studies interpersonal classism in the lives of low-income women. She is working to document the conditions under which classist behaviors are most likely to occur and the intersections of classism, racism, and sexism. Of special concern is discrimination that occurs in settings in which low-income groups rely on others for assistance (e.g., social services, medical care).

Biography, Education and Training

Ph.D., University of Rhode Island
B.A., Allegheny College

Selected Publications


  • Belle, D., & Bullock, H. E. (2023). The Psychology of Poverty, Wealth, and Economic Inequality. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
  • Rank, M. R., Eppard, L. M., & Bullock, H. E. (2021). Poorly Understood: What America Gets Wrong about Poverty. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
  • Bullock, H.E. (2013). Women and Poverty: Psychology, Public Policy, and Social Justice. Part of SPSSI’s Contemporary Social Issues Book Series. Chichester, West Sussex, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.
  • Lott, B., & Bullock, H.E. (2007). Psychology and Economic Injustice: Personal, Professional, and Political Intersections. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

 Edited Special Issues

  • Bullock, H.E. (Ed.). (2018). Psychological perspectives on understanding socioeconomic status and social class [Special Issue]. Translational Issues in Psychological Science, 4(2).
  • Lott, B., & Bullock, H.E. (Eds.). (2001). Listening to the voices of the poor [Special issue]. Journal of Social Issues, 57(2).

 Journal Articles and Book Chapters

  • Bullock, H. E., Reppond, H. A., Truong, S. V., & Singh, M. R. (2020). An intersectional analysis of the feminization of homelessness and mothers’ housing precarity. Journal of Social Issues, 76, 835-858.
  • Singh, M. R., & Bullock, H. E. (2020). An intersectional analysis of newspaper portrayals of the 2013 Reauthorization of the Violence Against Women Act. Translational Issues in Psychological Science. Advance online publication.
  • Bullock, H. E., Toolis, E. A., Sencion, B., & Cadenas, M.T. (2020). The high price of economic marginalization: Low-income Latinas’ experiences with mainstream banking and predatory lending services. Peace and Conflict: Journal of Peace Psychology, 26, 136-148.
  • Reppond, H. A., & Bullock, H. E. (2020). Reclaiming “good motherhood:” U.S. mothers’ critical resistance in family shelters. Feminism & Psychology, 30, 100-120.
  • Bullock, H.E., Twose, G.H.T, & Hamilton, V. M. (2019). Mandating work: A social psychological analysis of rising neoliberalism in the U.S. public assistance programs. Analyses of Social Issues and Public Policy, 19, 282-304.

  • Ryan D. A., Singh, M. R., Hentschke, E. A., & Bullock, H .E. (2018). “Minding the gap:” Social psychological insights for strengthening interclass relations and advancing economic justice. Translational Issues in Psychological Science, 4, 187-197.
  • Reppond, H. A., & Bullock, H. E. (2018). Framing reduced aid cash as a “compassionate” solution to urban homelessness. Analyses of Social Issues and Public Policy, 18, 284-306.
  • Bullock, H. E. (2018). “Welfare mothers” to “welfare warriors:” Economic justice as a human right. In S. Grabe (Ed.), The Potential for a Feminist Liberation Psychology in the Advancement of Women’s Human Rights (pp. 83-112). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
  • Bullock, H. E., & Reppond, H. A. (2018). Of “takers” and “makers:” A social psychological analysis of class and classism. In P. L. Hammack (Ed.), Oxford Handbook of Social Psychology and Social Justice (pp. 223-244). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
  • Bullock, H. E. (2017). Social class and policy preferences: Implications for inequality and interclass relations. Current Opinion in Psychology, 18, 141-146.
  • Bullock, H. E., & Reppond, H. A. (2017). Economic inequality and the gendered politics of redistribution. In A. L. Bos and M. C. Schneider (Eds.), The Political Psychology of Women in U.S. Politics (pp. 73-92). New York, NY: Routledge.
  • Bullock, H.E., Truong, S.V., & Chunn, L. (2017). Combatting social exclusion: “Safe space” and the dynamics of inclusion at a homeless farming site. Journal of Poverty, 21, 166-192.
  • Bullock, H. E. (2016). The widening economic divide: Economic disparities and classism as critical community context. In M. A. Bond, C. Keys, and I. Serrano-García (Eds.), APA Handbook of Community Psychology (pp. 353-367). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
  • Hunt, M. O., & Bullock, H. E. (2016). Ideologies and beliefs about poverty. In D. Brady and L.M. Burton (Eds.), The Oxford Handbook of the Social Science of Poverty (pp. 93-116). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
  • Limbert, W. M., & Bullock, H. E. (2009). Framing U.S. redistributive policies: Tough love for poor women and tax cuts for seniors. Analyses of Social Issues and Public Policy, 9, 57-83. 
  • Bullock, H. E., & Limbert, W. M. (2009). Class. In Fox, D., Prilleltensky, I. and Austin, S., (Eds.) Critical Psychology (2nd edition; pp. 215-232). London: Sage Publications.
  • Bullock, H. E. (2008). Justifying inequality: A social psychological analysis of beliefs about poverty and the poor. In A. Chih Lin and D. Harris (Eds.), The Colors of Poverty: Why Racial and Ethnic Disparities Persist (pp. 52-75). New York: Russell Sage.
  • Downing, R. A., LaVeist, T. A., & Bullock, H. E. (2007). Intersections of ethnicity and social class in provider advice regarding reproductive health. American Journal of Public Health, 97, 1803-1807.
  • Bullock, H. E., & Fernald, J. L. (2005). Predicting support for the elimination of the dividend tax: The role of framing and attributions for wealth. Analyses of Social Issues and Public Policy, 5, 49-66.
  • Bullock, H. E., & Waugh, I. M. (2005). Beliefs about poverty and opportunity among Mexican immigrant farmworkers. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 35, 1132-1149.
  • Limbert, W. M., & Bullock, H. E. (2005). “Playing the fool:” U.S. welfare policy from a critical race perspective. Feminism and Psychology, 15, 253-274.
  • Bullock, H. E. (2004). From the frontlines of welfare reform: An analysis of social worker and welfare recipient attitudes. Journal of Social Psychology, 144, 571-588.
  • Bullock, H. E., & Limbert, W. M. (2003). Scaling the socioeconomic ladder: Women’s perceptions of class status and opportunity. Journal of Social Issues, 59, 693-709.
  • Bullock, H. E., Williams, W.R., & Limbert, W.M. (2003). Predicting support for welfare policies: The impact of attributions and beliefs about inequality. Journal of Poverty, 7, 35-56.
  • Bullock, H. E., Wyche, K.F., & Williams, W.R. (2001). Media images of the poor. Journal of Social Issues, 57, 229-246.
  • Bullock, H. E. (1999). Attributions for poverty: A comparison of middle class and welfare recipient attitudes. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 29, 2059-2082.
  • Bullock, H. E. (1995). Class acts: Middle class responses to the poor. In B. Lott and D. Maluso (Eds.), The Social Psychology of Interpersonal Discrimination (pp. 118-159). New York: Guilford Press.